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Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
 

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. With the evidence of long-range transport of these substances to regions where they have never been used or produced and the consequent threats they pose to the environment of the whole globe, the international community has now, at several occasions called for urgent global actions to reduce and eliminate releases of these chemicals.

Global Monitoring of POPs

Article 16 of the Stockholm Convention on POPs requires the Conference of the Parties to perform an effectiveness evaluation starting four years after entry into force of the Convention and then at periodic intervals. In order to facilitate the evaluation the Conference of Parties will initiate the establishment of arrangements to provide itself with comparable monitoring data on the presence of the chemicals under the Convention as well as their regional and global environmental transport. Such arrangements should be implemented on a regional basis when appropriate.

At the request of the POPs Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee UNEP Chemicals has launched a POPs Global Monitoring Programme. The programme is intended to form a basis for the effectiveness evaluation of the Stockholm Convention. Activities will include developing guidance on sampling and analysis of POPs, QA/QC procedures, data treatment and communication and data assessment. In addition the programme will include an electronic discussion group on POPs monitoring issues where existing programs and laboratories are invited to participate and share their experience on this subject.

The programme will focus on the twelve POPs subject of the Stockholm Convention. It will be designed to accommodate other substances that in the future might be included in the Stockholm Convention as agreed by the Conference of the Parties.

The web site also contains information on national, regional and international monitoring programmes that are involved with chemical analyses of POPs. Through this site programmes and monitoring activities that are not listed can directly sign in and become active members of the programme.


 
Workshop to Develop a Global POPs Monitoring Programme  
 Discussion Groups
 International and Regional Monitoring Activities
 National Monitoring Programmes
 Sample Banks 
 EXICHEM
 IPCS INCHEM on the WEB
 Regionally based assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS)
 UNEP POPs
 Links and Documents
 Global POPs laboratory inventory 
 Guidance document for Global POPs Monitoring

Effects of POPs on Human Health and Environment

The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : 

- Reproduction failure and population declines; 
- Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; 
- Feminization of males and masculization of females; 
- Immune system becomes weaker; 
- Abnormalities in behavior; 
- Tumors and cancer; 
- Birth defects;

Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing.

Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: 

- Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; 
- Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; 
- Immune system weaker; 
- Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; 
- Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; 
- Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others.

The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant.

The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant. The harmful effects of POPs on human health and the environment was unknown until the 1960s. As a result the use of these compounds were encouraged until the scientists have developed a large body of evidence associating POPs to do injuries to human health and to the environment. The first evidence pointed by the researcher is the population declines in wildlife due to POPs. The scientists observed a range of health injuries in birds, fishes and mammals. Wildlife species exposed to POPs in the environment may exhibit any of a number of different kinds of injury. These includes : - Reproduction failure and population declines; - Abnormal functioning of thyroids and other hormone system; - Feminization of males and masculization of females; - Immune system becomes weaker; - Abnormalities in behavior; - Tumors and cancer; - Birth defects; Human exposure to POPs are either directly from the environment a occupational and through food chain. Some groups of people like farmers and workers are exposed to POPs in their occupations. POPs can be found in the blood, muscles and other tissues particularly in fatty tissues of the general human population in all over the world. Research on the ways POPs impact on human health is continuing. Good evidences are there that human exposure to specific POPs or classes of POPs may cause following injuries: - Cancers and tumors at multiple sites; - Neurobehavioral impairment including learning disorders, reduced performance on standard tests and changes in temperament; - Immune system weaker; - Reproductive deficits and sex-linked disorders; - Shortened period of location in nursing mothers; - Diseases such as endometriosis (a painful, chronic gynecological disorder in which uterine tissues are affected), increased incidence of diabetes and others. The evidence suggests that women, infants, and children are especially vulnerable to certain effects of POPs. POPs are transferred from mother to the child both prenatal and postnatal, ultimately causing harm to the developing infant.

For more than 2 decades awareness has grown about the toxic effects to human health and the environment caused by certain chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, travel great distances through various media from their point of origin, bio-accumulate in humans and other organisms, and are bio-concentrated through food chains. The evidence of detrimental effects on living organisms at the population level demonstrates that POPs are a thread to biodiversity and even have potential for disruption at the ecosystem level.

 
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